|wdt_ID||Country||Total Confirmed||New Today||Total Deaths||New Deaths||Total Recovered|
|1||World||1 605 793||2 141||95 766||74||357 003|
|2||USA||468 895||329||16 697||6||25 928|
|3||Spain||153 222||15 447||52 165|
|4||Italy||143 626||18 279||28 470|
|5||Germany||118 235||2 607||52 407|
|6||France||117 749||12 210||23 206|
|7||China||81 907||42||3 336||1||77 455|
|8||Iran||66 220||4 110||32 309|
|9||UK||65 077||7 978||135|
|10||Turkey||42 282||908||2 142|
This article may contain outdated or inaccurate information. Only a health professional is able to provide you with medical advice, and only the health authorities in your country are competent to give public health instructions relating to the Covid-19 pandemic.
Covid-19 Pandemic: CoronaVirus
The Covid-19 pandemic is a pandemic of an emerging infectious disease, 2019 coronavirus disease (Covid-19), caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. It appears on November 17, 2019 in the city of Wuhan, in central China, then spreads throughout the world.
The World Health Organization (WHO) first alerts the People’s Republic of China and its other member states, then declares a public health emergency of international concern on January 30.
On January 13, a first case was discovered outside mainland China. Two cruise ships (the MS Westerdam and the Diamond Princess) are also affected. The total number of patients outside China exceeds 1,500 in mid-February.
From January 2020, the Chinese government implements cumbersome containment procedures, and places several cities and then a whole region in quarantine, closing many public sites and deploying important sanitary means.
On February 25, the number of new cases reported daily outside China is higher than in that country.
On March 11, 2020, the Covid-19 epidemic was declared a pandemic by the WHO, which asked for essential protective measures to prevent the saturation of intensive care services and strengthen preventive hygiene (elimination of physical contact, kisses and handshakes, end of gatherings and major events as well as unnecessary trips and trips, promotion of hand washing, implementation of quarantine, etc.). This global pandemic is causing serial cancellations of sporting and cultural events all over the planet, the implementation by many countries of containment measures to slow the formation of new outbreaks of contagion, the closing of the borders of many countries, and a stock market crash due to the uncertainties and fears it poses for the world economy. It also has effects in terms of social and economic instability and is the pretext for the online dissemination of information that is erroneous or part of conspiracy theory.
The provisional fatality rate is lower than in previous coronavirus epidemics, with an estimate of approximately 1 to 2% on the cases detected.
As of April 8, approximately 1,529,500 cumulative cases have been confirmed worldwide, including approximately 339,500 people healed and 89,500 dead. 214 countries and territories are affected by this global health crisis, with major outbreaks in China, Italy, the United States, Spain, Germany, Iran and France.
Epidemiological data and characteristics
The epidemiological situation is constantly evolving, but the data on the virus and COVID-19 were quickly shared by the researchers, as of January 5, and less than a week after identification of the virus. The first pre-publication appears two weeks after the declaration, on January 19.
Various journals and scientific publishers (eg The Lancet, which has created a dedicated Hub (Coronavirus hub page [archive]), Nature, Elsevier … have made their resources available to researchers and doctors, even the general public (articles journals; scientific and medical textbooks, educational products …); Elsevier has created an interactive world map of experts from Scopus data; and it now allows exploration (in full text) of its growing data exponentially since the end of 2019, including via NIH’s PubMed Central and the WHO database, “free of charge and without copyright limitations.” Elsevier and The Lancet signed the Wellcome Trust declaration on sharing, open and fast, pandemic research data and results to help the public health response and save lives.
The health emergency, however, means that medical and scientific discoveries and updates are published with a faster and less meticulous peer review than usual, and sometimes in prepublication before peer review; the quality of primary data and secondary sources should therefore be interpreted with caution. In addition, data gaps are due to the fact that countries do not have the same approach in terms of screening or transparency, for financial, technical and / or political reasons. Added to this is the quality of the health monitoring and information feedback system. Screening can aim to be systematic (for example in South Korea), be targeted only on carriers of the virus presenting symptoms, or only target the most serious cases (for example in France).
Screening, when it exists, is not done at the same rate everywhere and there is a growing gap between confirmed cases and real cases. The initial data on lethality (death rate among those affected) were particularly unreliable, making the comparison between countries not very significant.
The same biases concern mortality, the census criteria not being homogeneous between countries. Nevertheless, the mortality rate at the end of the pandemic will be significant for the public health policies carried out in each country.
Epidemiological characteristics of the emergence phase in China
- The balance sheets and figures below should be interpreted with regard to the demographic specificities of China. Its age pyramid is, for example, not comparable to that of France, but close to that of Germany. The sex ratio disadvantages women there ( 113 boys for 100 girls at birth), except above 65 years ( 100 women for 91 men ); and the share of the number of children in the population is very low: in 2019 the birth rate was 10.4 births per thousand inhabitants (the lowest in 70 years) and the number of births (14.6 million in 2019, 4% less than in 2018) is the lowest in nearly 60 years ;
- The figures below relate only to patients confirmed in China, from an official source (44,672 cases for the first assessment); it is the fringe of the most symptomatic patients (therefore more easily detectable); these figures may change; they would probably be different in a country with a very young population or with a more balanced sex ratio.
According to an initial epidemiological assessment , published on February 24, 2020, based on 44,672 confirmed cases in China:
- 87% of these confirmed patients were between 30 and 79 years old;
- Only 1% were 9 or younger;
- Only 1% were between 10 and 19 years old;
- 3% were 80 years of age or older;
- 75% became ill in the province of Hubei , and 86% of exposures were related to Wuhan (residents, visitors or close contact with them);
- 81% of the confirmed cases were mild (without pneumonia or with mild pneumonia);
- 14% were severe (with dyspnea , respiratory rate greater than or equal to 30 / min, blood oxygen saturation less than or equal to 93%, partial pressure of arterial oxygen compared to the inspired oxygen ratio less than 300 and / or infiltrates greater than 50% in 24 to 48 h );
- 5% of cases were critical (respiratory failure, septic shock and / or multiple organ dysfunction or failure);
- overall case fatality rate : 2.3% (1,023 deaths for 44,672 confirmed cases );
- 0% death among children 9 and under;
- 0% death in mild cases;
- 49% of deaths among critical cases;
- 8% death among 70-79 year olds;
- 14.8% of deaths among people aged 80 and over.
The case fatality rate was much higher in the case of preexisting comorbidities :
- 10.5% for cardiovascular diseases ;
- 7.3% for diabetes ;
- 6.3% for chronic respiratory diseases ;
- 6% for high blood pressure ;
- 5.6% for cancer .
The health workers were overexposed (1716 cases for a total of 44,672 cases proven 3.8% [When?] ), Especially in Wuhan (63% of the city with 1080 patients). 14.8% of confirmed cases among health workers were classified as serious or critical (only five died during this period).
The pandemic is due to a coronavirus , a type of virus enveloped in spherical symmetry and covered with spicules (made up of various proteins ) giving it the appearance of a crown (this crown refers to a common representation of the virus in two dimensions; in mathematical terms and in three dimensions, these protrusions are part of what looks like a solid crown ).
The genetic sequence of this coronavirus is 80% similar to that of the SARS coronavirus . It is first provisionally designated by the WHO and the CDC under the English term 2019 novel coronavirus , or 2019-nCoV, before being appointed SARS-CoV-2 on the recommendation of ICTV . The disease caused by this virus is definitively named covid-19 on February 11, 2020 by the WHO .
Duration of virus infectivity
The duration of infectivity of the virus would be, depending on its medium, from 24 to 72 hours. Plastics promote its lifespan . Under a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius ( 25 ° C ) it persists longer, above 30 ° C its lifespan decreases sharply
In SARS , there was no mild form; moreover, the patients went to the hospital and did not become contagious until 3 to 4 days after the appearance of clinical signs, which facilitated the control of the pandemic .
At , however, the precise modalities of human-to-human transmission are still unknown.
- China announces that asymptomatic carriers of the SARS-CoV-2 virus can transmit it; and that the virus has a short incubation period and can be transmitted before the first symptoms . The contaminations however seem almost all to come from contacts with subjects already presenting manifestations of the disease .
- Most reported patients appear to have only mild illness or require no hospitalization (approximately 80%) , but the exact number of symptomatic patients in the population is still unknown.
- Some infected people did not transmit the virus, while others largely excreted and / or transmitted it .
- Coronaviruses develop in the respiratory tract, but they are also frequently found in the blood and in the plasma or serum of patients. This implies a risk of transmission via the transfusion of blood products . In, Chinese scientists point out that, as there are many asymptomatic cases of covid-19, appropriate transfusion safety measures ( eg choice of donors, methods of detection and inactivation of viruses) are imperative, especially in areas of endemic .
- Children represent between 2 to 3% of cases and no case of death in children under 9 years of age according to data from the Chinese epidemic. The Italian data confirm to date the few pediatric cases with 8 confirmed cases out of the first 650 cases .
- Three hypotheses explain for the moment the fact that children are preserved :
- an immune system not strong enough to cause severe inflammation of the bronchi;
- less virus replication;
- children going to schools and nurseries have already found themselves in contact with other coronaviruses and have thus been better immunized.
- Sweden and the Netherlands have chosen to keep schools open to limit the risk of the virus spreading to at-risk elderly populations .
The disease coronavirus in 2019 , called Covid-19 (acronym of its name in English: ” coronavirus disease in 2019 “) was so named by the WHO 11 February 2020 . It is also known, especially in China , under its old name ” NCP (Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia) ” .
As described in , the symptoms of covid-19 are similar to those of the flu :
- Fever : 87.9%
- Dry cough : 67.7%
- Fatigue : 38.1%
- Sputum : 33.4%
- Dyspnea : 18.6%
- Pain muscle or joint : 14.8%
- Sore throat: 13.9%
- Headache : 13.6%
- Chills : 11.4%
- Nausea and vomiting : 5.0%
- Nasal congestion : 4.8%
- Diarrhea : 3.7%
- Hemoptysis : 0.9%
- Conjunctival congestion : 0.8%
The fever can appear several days after the cough [ref. required] .
Many people with the virus have no symptoms, or have mild symptoms (small cough, fever) without respiratory distress .
Of anosmia and taste loss can also occur, particularly in younger .